Sunday 9 August 1 – 5 am.
Apologies for any inconvenience caused.
The Royal College of Physicians
Usually Royal Colleges are housed behind grand Georgian or Victorian facades. As a result of bomb damage the original home of the Royal College of Physicians was destroyed and it’s replacement, designed by Denys Lasdun is a famous example of the Brutalist style of modernist architecture.
The College has a study space, The Wellcome Reading Room, that is available to those interested in medical subjects. The College’s particular strengths are in the history of medicine, medical education and health and social policy. Services include access to print and e-journal collections and also e-books. Rare books, manuscripts and archives can be consulted by making an appointment.
The College is a fascinating place to visit, apart from it’s light and airy modern interior it is full of interesting objects such as paintings, silverware and a collection of historical medical objects. These include the very rare 17th century anatomical tables and the interior of the ‘Censors’ Room’ which was moved from the old building. They also hold temporary exhibitions throughout the year. The college is open to the general public and even provides a free headset guide for visitors who are interested in its architecture or displays. Unusually, the College also has a beautiful Medicinal Garden which contains a range of plants used in medicine, this is also open to the public and tours are available on several dates over the summer.
Near the Royal College of Physicians
The main attraction in the area is literally right next to the College: Regent’s Park. The park contains gardens, memorials and an open-air theatre. On the northern edge of the park is London Zoo who offer ‘Sunset Safaris’ throughout the summer, late night opening when many of the animals are at their liveliest. Also in the northern part of the park is Primrose Hill which offers one of the finest views of London’s skyline and is a favourite place for kite flyers.
A cup of coffee and a sandwich?
If it is sunny the best thing to do is take a picnic and sit in the park. The most varied selection of places for food and drink are near Primrose Hill. The Queen’s Pub has good food and is always full of dogs and their walkers. The Primrose Bakery in nearby Gloucester Avenue is famous for its cupcakes. A Regent’s Park Road institution, the Lemonia Greek Taverna has good value set lunches during the week and is a pleasant light airy space full of plants and ferns.
Royal College of Physicians
11 St Andrews Place
London NW1 4LE
Tel: 0203075 1649
Don’t forget– if you cannot make it in to St George’s Library over the summer, there are still many resources that you can access from a computer with internet access (logins may be required). Click here for further information.
One of the primary purposes of military medicine during the war was to preserve a precious resource. Patients were ‘repaired’ to be battle ready and a field surgeon or hospital was as much a part of the military complex as a sapper or gun emplacement. Patients were assessed for fitness to fight at every point during their care, with all but the most severely wounded in a loop that inexorably led back to the battlefront. Those undergoing treatment were aware of the situation they were in, one convalescing soldier described every patient such as himself in terms of being a:
‘…wheel in a complicated machine [and] all must work together otherwise disorder and chaos would inevitably result’ (Recollections of the Hospital Keighley and its Auxillaries, 1919, pp: 32–33).
If this seems harsh it should be remembered that the concept of an ordinary soldier as a valuable asset was a major driver in providing care. Just a century before, an injured combatant could expect little more than a place on a floor, minimal attention and most likely a painful death from disease or infection. Paradoxically, during the first world war, whilst injuries were inflicted on a hitherto unseen scale, medical services actually managed to deliver a higher chance of survival than ever before.
Patients during the First World War were treated differently according to rank and local conditions but there were established processes that most would have experienced in some form. The first was evacuation and ‘triage’, a term popularised during this period. Only the very seriously ill would get a ‘Blighty Ticket’ sending them back to hospitals like St George’s for care and convalescence.
Established hospitals such as St George’s put beds aside for injured servicemen from the very outset of the war (St George’s Hospital Gazette, October 1914). Whilst wards followed the conventional layout of beds and treatment stations the buildings they were set up in varied widely. There were large ‘hut’ hospitals constructed especially to deal with the influx of wounded but a diverse range of buildings were also commandeered for use as ad hoc hospitals. However the treatment for all injured soldiers followed the medical mores of the time; bed rest, a ‘soft diet’, fresh air, and activities to promote good morale were all prioritised.
It might have been expected, even if some surroundings were basic, that everyone would be happy to be away from the battlefield but responses to the care offered were mixed. Many were relieved to have a bed and a bit of peace. However for others the confinement to a bed itself was sometimes resented. As one author noted in a hospital magazine:
‘The clothes [being] tucked in to such an extent that it is well-nigh impossible for [the patient] to move . The bed is no longer a bed, it is a nightmare’ (Ammonite, 1917, pp: 286–287).
Others were not happy with the general conditions they encountered. In 1917 one soldier, admitted for injuries caused by gas, described the Royal Naval Hospital as:
‘the closest combination of prison and workhouse I know’ [with] ‘infamous rules galore, scanty ill-cooked grub and general treatment rotten’ (Liddle Collection, 1917).
The military hospital was as full of distinctions, rules and constraints as any army base. Whilst patients were spared the shells and gas at the front, treatment itself could be painful and recovery was far from guaranteed. However those hospitalised had the shared experience of fighting at the front and an ‘esprit de corps’ did exist amongst patients. Much like the ‘Wipers Times’ (which was produced in Ypres by soldiers to entertain each other) hospital patients produced newspapers with a content that often satirised hospital life (Reznick, 2004).
The ordinary soldier was inclined to view his time in hospital with a grim, chippy, resignation and the therapies to encourage morale and recovery were often pilloried. One was the insistence on playing music, many soldiers enjoyed singing but sometimes the endless use of a gramophone grated. Another irritation was the attention of well-meaning upper class women making ignorant comments. When she was a volunteer nurse, the writer Enid Bagnold wrote exasperatedly of ‘the lady who comes in to tea and wants to be introduced to everyone as though it was a school treat’ (Bagnold, 1918, p.15).
“Oh! I’ve got a splendid job in a brewery making ‘ops, and my friend here he’s going in for short’ and !”
Cartoon satirising well to do hospital visitors (image courtesy of Wellcome Images).
Soldiers recovering in Britain were required to wear a loose blue uniform, known as the ‘convalescent blues’. The reasons for this were partially practical. Uniforms from the front were worn, tatty, full of lice and had to be disinfected or replaced. A hospital uniform was the cheap utilitarian answer. However it also had a psychological role, that of reinforcing a sense of institutionalisation and discipline. Moreover there was also an undeniable propaganda purpose in forcing convalescents to wear the ‘blues’. It marked them out as heroic ‘Tommies’ whilst highlighting that they were being cared for by the government; reassuring for those whose family members remained at the front.
The patients themselves had mixed feelings about them. To start with officers were exempted; they received an armband and an allowance to help them buy new clothes. Everyone else had to wear the outfit at all times and some found it undignified whilst others felt that it took away their individuality. Produced in one size only, they were often ill-fitting and some complained that the uniforms resembled pyjamas. There were advantages to wearing the uniform however, the attention could be positive and there was no risk of being presented with the dreaded white feather for cowardice. The injured soldier also gave the public at home the opportunity to be charitable and help the war effort. They would often be be given free entrance to theatres or gifts by grateful citizens.
A popular gift for someone wearing the convalescent blues was tobacco. It sometimes appeared that the army at the front ran on nicotine. Some frowned on this but the general consensus was that any small comfort was to be encouraged. In fact there were official charity drives to provide ‘Smokes for Soldiers’ and ‘Fag Day’ was the flag day for collecting funds in order to do so. Tobacco obtained with the fund could was also distributed to wounded and convalescing soldiers and sailors.
Poster promoting ‘Fag Day’ (image courtesy of the Imperial War Museum).
It might have been expected that the stress on cleanliness and hygiene would preclude smoking on wards and whilst there were sometimes limitations this does not appear to have been generally the case. Gifts of cigarettes and tobacco were regularly presented to the men at many London hospitals.
Alcohol was more problematic. At the front, despite some opposition, soldiers received a rum ration. The known tendency for it to dull reactions was considered to be outweighed by its ability to lift morale and comfort the troops. In clearing stations it was sometimes used as a disinfectant and pain suppressant. Those on leave in France and Belgium could also buy wine and spirits from the local population.
The situation on the Home Front was different. In fact it was women who caused the greatest consternation as they were drinking more than men. This was particularly worrying in the case of munitionettes and drivers but the government was also concerned about productivity and morality in more general terms. The result was that one of the most unusual laws in British history was passed in some areas in 1916. The so called ‘Treating laws’ forbid anyone to buy a drink for someone else, even a family member or spouse.
As a result there were no mass public drives to provide soldiers with gin or brandy or to encourage them to drink. However it was common for pub landlords to give drinks to serving and recuperating soldiers. Gifts of alcohol to convalescents in hospitals were not unusual. In the case of officers alcohol was freely available, a Canadian officer being treated at King Edward VII’s Hospital for Officers recalled that:
‘The butler used to come round the wards before meals and take one’s order for dinner. Liquor was available in any form by request’ (Reznick, 2004, p.64).
At the beginning of the war recruiting officers had been dismayed by the health of many volunteers, the results of poverty and poor nutrition amongst the general population. This, combined with the privations in the trenches might have been expected to ensure that food, at least, would be gratefully received. However patients complained about both the ingredients and the portion size of their meals. As one soldier drily observed in 1917:
‘Unless you are on a starvation diet, your food, consisting mainly of fish, soup and eggs, is fit for the gods – the gods being ethereal creatures and not standing much in the need of solid sustenance’ (In hospital,1917, p.80).
The First World War hospital was not simply about care and recovery. A military hospital, in which an injured soldier could spend months recuperating, was often also a community. It emphasised the soldier’s continuing role in the war, his job was to recover and this was part of his service. The use of uniforms and team activities was designed to ensure the recovering serviceman remained institutionalised. Towards the end of the war, when Russia had undergone a revolution and soldiers were increasingly mutinous the British government was particularly worried about morale. Hospitals, with their concerts, music and cheery patriotism were part of the effort to prevent rebellion and foster comradery amongst an increasingly brutalised and weary fighting force.
Nonetheless, the wounded, especially those from poor backgrounds received free treatment they would have been unused to prior to the conflict. After the war many continued to benefit from medical care provided by charities and hospitals such as St George’s.
Ammonite, ‘Beds and bed making’, (1917) Southern Cross: Magazine of the First Southern General Hospital, pp.286-287.
Bagnold, E. (1918) A Diary without Dates. London: William Heinemann.
Cayley Robinson, F. (1920) Acts of Mercy: The Doctor [paint on panel]. Available at: http://blog.wellcomelibrary.org/label/frederick-cayley-robinson/ (Accessed: 4 November 2014).
Imperial War Museum Collection. Available at: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections-research (Accessed: 4 November 2014.
‘In hospital’ the magazine of the Fourth Northern General Hospital (1917).
Wallis, S. J.(1917) Letter from S.J Wallis to his brother George Wallis, 3 and 6 November. Leeds University Library, Liddle Collection.
Recollections of the Hospital Keighley and its Auxillaries. (1917) London: Wadsworth and Co.
Reznick, J. S. (2004) Healing the Nation. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Wallis, S. J.(1917) Letter from S.J Wallis to his brother George Wallis, 3 and 6 November. Leeds University Library, Liddle Collection.
Wellcome Images. (2014) Available at: http://wellcomeimages.org/ (Accessed 11th November 2014).
WW1 Picture Postcards. (2014) Available at: http://www.worldwar1postcards.com/ (Accessed 11th November 2014)
Nursing before the War.
Until the 19th century nurses had been regarded as low level domestic servants with very basic skills. In 1865 the Medical Superintendent of Glasgow Municipal Hospital, Dr J. B. Russell, described the profession thus:
‘at present nursing is the last resource of female adversity. Slatternly widows, runaway wives, servants out of place, women bankrupt of fame or fortune from whatever cause, fall back on hospital nursing‘ (Gaffney, 1982, p.140).
In 1867 Florence Nightingale dismissed her predecessors as: ‘those who were too old, too weak, too drunken, too dirty, too stupid or too bad to do anything else‘ (Gaffney, 1982, p. 194).
Barnard, F. (1874) Mrs. Gamp, on the Art of Nursing. This image depicts Dickens’ dissolute, drunken and slovenly stereotype of the early Victorian nurse.
Nursing often involved close physical contact with strangers. This, combined with the cleaning and feeding elements of the role, led to it being regarded as somewhat degrading and thus unsuitable for respectable women. Furthermore, a social stigma attached itself to any woman required to work for a living rather than being supported by her husband or family. As the 19th century advanced however, the social class of hospital patients had begun to diversify. Advances in surgery and care at hospitals resulted in the presence of patients who had previously been tended to at home under the management of personal physicians. This, along with developments in medical science and technology, fuelled the demand for skilled presentable nurses.
Professional nurses at George’s circa 1900 (St George’s archive).
By 1914 there were an estimated 12,000 nursing personnel with some kind of recognised training in Britain (Dingwall, Rafferty and Webster, 1988, p. 47). Such training might have included lectures in pharmaceuticals, hygiene, anatomy and nutrition. There was also plenty of work available as hospitals expanded and new ones opened but there remained no recognised formal skill base. Old prejudices towards the profession lingered and very few middle class women were recruited (Maggs, 1983, p. 47). Nurses, who were largely drawn from respectable working class backgrounds, regarded themselves as educated and genteel. Nursing itself however, remained a new and vulnerable profession.
Advertisement for St George’s Hospital Institute for trained nurses (St George’s Hospital Gazette, May 1914).
Nurses operated within a regimented, hierarchical system with their status demarcated by their uniform and experience. They were expected to be obedient and calm under pressure. Most would have had experience of treating wounds and infections. To modern eyes it seems surprising therefore that they were not immediately acknowledged as an indispensable resource in fighting the war. However 1914 Britain remained a patriarchal culture and there was a resistance to placing women anywhere near the fighting. Nurses were therefore initially regarded as being most useful where they could free able-bodied men for service. Nevertheless due to the sheer numbers of wounded being evacuated from the front, it rapidly became clear that professional nurses were urgently required as close to the battlefields as possible.
Photograph of St George’s nurses taken close to 1914 (St George’s archive).
Professionals and Volunteers.
As the casualties mounted it also became apparent that the number of nurses deployed was, in fact, grossly insufficient. Voluntary Aid Detachment Workers (VADs) were recruited to carry out the auxiliary, unskilled parts of the job such as laundering, cleaning and applying basic dressings. It was dirty, challenging work yet paradoxically recruits were usually drafted from the middle and upper classes. This was partially because the other opportunities to aid the war effort such as work in munitions factories were considered socially unacceptable. There was also a perception that these young women were, due to their class and temperament, ‘natural’ nurses. Providing light care to the poor and elderly had long been considered appropriate pastimes for wealthy young women, as long as they did so out of charity rather than the need to earn a wage. VADs received a salary but were expected to pay for their uniforms and basic training themselves.
Dennys, J. (1915) VAD Recruitment poster (image courtesy of the Imperial War Museum).
As a consequence professional nurses found themselves cast in the role of manager and educator of VADs alongside their nursing duties. Moreover they had to supervise women from higher echelons of society than themselves and may have felt threatened by this influx of unskilled labour. This caused some friction. The professional nurses were occasionally irritated by the sense of entitlement of young, untrained women whom after the war would naturally occupy higher social positions than them. The volunteers in turn, unused to the discipline of the nursing system sometimes found their supervisors harsh and disciplinarian (Hallett, 2014). The VADs however, generally admired the professionalism and skills of their seniors and more often than not the challenges of dealing with the dying and wounded brought them together. The VADs’ contribution was essential and many finished the war as highly capable nurses (Hallett, 2014).
French and British soldiers and German prisoners having their wounds dressed by nurses at a clearing station in 1918. (image courtesy of the Imperial War Museum)
Nursing at the Front.
Life for nurses near the front was difficult. Trained to preserve cleanliness and hygiene they had to struggle to even keep themselves clean and louse-free. Casualties would arrive caked in mud and dirt (Lomas, 2014, p.20) and conditions at both clearing stations and hospitals could be rudimentary. E.M. McCarthy the Matron-Chief of British Troops wrote of the clearing stations near the Western Front in 1915:
‘In the wards there were rows of stretchers with brown blankets only and on bare floors…There were no trolleys or dressing tables, an empty petrol can served for the soiled dressings and a clean piece of paper as a tray for the soiled dressings, and the floor or next stretcher for a table. The cases, acute and light, were all mixed in the same ward.’ (McCarthy, 1919).
Nurses also had to cope with brutal injuries and aggressive infections. Their work included carefully removing shrapnel, irrigating wounds and cutting away infected tissue; activities that more closely resembled surgery than nursing care. Due to the heavily manured soil in Belgium and France many soldiers succumbed to tetanus and gangrene, the only practical treatment for which was often amputation. Anaesthetics and pain medication could be scarce; nurses would work on wounds as orderlies forcibly held patients down. The term ‘triage’ was popularised during the First World War. Nurses found themselves making decisions that would have dramatic and lasting effects upon their patients’ lives.
Despite the damp, unsanitary conditions of the trenches this was the first modern war during which more combatants died from their injuries rather than infectious disease (Hallett,2014). In 1915 Nurse Clare Gass described the arrival of casualties:
‘… some terrible cases, oh so much better dead (one young lad with eyes and nose all gone- one blur of mangled flesh –and body whole and sound), heads shattered to pieces or limbs hanging by a thread of tendons. Oh why must such things be?’ (Lomas, 2014, p.21)
These wounds were the consequence of advances in conventional weaponry. The use of chemical warfare such as chlorine, phosgene and mustard gasses however, took combatants and medical staff by surprise. It was particularly hard to treat. One nurse described the effects of mustard gas:
‘Poor things burnt and blistered all over with great mustard-coloured blisters, with blind eyes… all sticky and stuck together, always fighting for breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that their throats are closing and they know they will choke’ (Blodgett, 2009).
After the War.
British nurses watching a German patient being handed over in 1919 (image courtesy of the Imperial War Museum).
Hospitals such as St George’s continued to deal with the effects of the war long after the armistice in November 1918. Amputees and those poisoned by gas or suffering from disfiguring injuries required continuing care. Nonetheless, demobilisation and the closure of military hospitals naturally led to a dramatic reduction in the need for nurses, leading to a sudden loss of employment and income for many. This particularly affected married women who could no longer serve after the war (Dean, 2012).
Many nurses returned to their pre-war lives but the war had provided not only horrors but opportunities. Some had travelled to places they had never imagined visiting and experienced freedoms and responsibilities they would never have been granted before 1914. It had a lasting effect on many. Agatha Christie, for example, served as a VAD and was able to qualify as a pharmaceutical dispenser after the war. Many of her novels would subsequently feature death by poisoning. Her most famous detective, Hercule Poirot, was a Belgian refugee from the war.
Medicine itself remained a male dominated field but it had become difficult to refute the value of a qualified, skilled nurse in the light of the resilience, stoicism and determination they had demonstrated during the war. Nurses’ fears that the large numbers of volunteers taking on nursing roles during the war would ‘dilute’ their claim to professional status proved unfounded and in 1919 official registration for trained nurses was introduced. In 1933 Blomfield described the post-war body of nurses at St George’s:
‘There is little in common between the kindly, but poorly instructed female of a hundred years ago, and the healthy, young, cultured and highly skilled woman who is the finished hospital nurse of today (Blomfield, 1933, p. 102).’
He goes on to describe the training and rigorous application procedure at the hospital concluding that:
‘The high standard demanded at St. George’s has given her nurses a reputation second to none’ (Blomfield, 1933, p.103).
Barnard, F. (1879) Mrs. Gamp, on the Art of Nursing [Pen and Ink]. Available at: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fred_Barnard00.jpg (Accessed: 4 November 2014).
Blodgett, B. (2009) ‘Germany’s use of chemical warfare in World War I’, First world war.com, Available at: http://www.firstworldwar.com/features/chemical_warfare.htm (Accessed: 4 November 2014).
Blomfield, J. (1933) St George’s 1733 – 1933. London: The Medici Society.
Dingwall, Robert, Anne Marie Rafferty, Charles Webster, eds. (1988) An Introduction to the Social History of Nursing. London: Routledge.
Gaffney, R. (1982) ‘ Women as Doctors and Nurses’, in Checkland, O. and Lamb, M. (eds.) Health Care as Social History. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press pp. 134–148.
Hallett, C. (2014) ‘A very valuable fusion of classes’: British professional and volunteer nurses of the First World War.’ Endeavour, 38 (2), pp: 101 – 109.
Hallett, C. (2014) ‘Stoicism and care in the face of carnage’ Nursing Standard, 28(48).
Imperial War Museum. Collections and Research. http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections-research .
Lomas, C. (2014) ‘In the thick of it’, Nursing Standard, 28 (24) pp: 20-22.
Maggs, C.J (1983) The Origins of General Nursing. London: Croom Helm.
Mc Carthy, E. M. Report 31.7.1919. The National Archives WQ222/2134. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ (Accessed: 4 November 2014).
St George’s Hospital Gazette, July 2014.
JISC Digital Media have released a guide on the the use of images for teaching and research.
It contains information on copyright, a process chart for users of digital images, guidance on the stages in the clearance of images for use in teaching and research, and more.
The National Library of Medicine have created the Open-i Project, an image search engine that aims to provide next generation information retrieval services for biomedical articles from the full text collections such as PubMed Central. Currently in the beta stage, it is unique in its ability to index both the text and images in the articles.
Open-i lets users retrieve not only the MEDLINE citation information, but also the outcome statements in the article and the most relevant figure from it. Further, it is possible to use the figure as a query component to find other relevant images or other visually similar images. Future stages aim to provide image region-of-interest (ROI) based querying. The initial number of images is projected to be around 600,000 and will scale to millions. The extensive image analysis and indexing and deep text analysis and indexing require distributed computing.
Users can search by ‘Citation List’ or ‘Image Grid’. In Image Grid View in Open-i, users are able to limit searches by image type, there is also the interesting feature of being able to ‘Query by Image’ ; if an image is uploaded, the engine will search the database for a close match.
Example of a search return in Image Grid View
October is Black History Month. To celebrate St George’s University Library has created a Pinterest board to celebrate those who have made significant contributions to the medical field. You may have heard of Mary Seacole, but do you know why Henrietta Lacks is important?
What vital contributions were made by Caribbean women during the formative years of the NHS, and which ancient doctor is still held in high regard?
Visit our Pinterest board to find out more.
The Library now subscribes to the Medical & Life Science collection from SpringerImages which includes:
Biology Image Library
Medicine & Public Health
How to access:
At present, only on-site access is possible either:
Can I re-use the content?
For educational use only by University staff and students, images can be copied and used in documents, presentations etc, but please acknowledge the source. In addition, content can also be used in Moodle or the University Portal. Please note that if we cancel our subscription then any content must be removed.
What is it and how can it help me?
Primal Pictures (Anatomy.tv), produced by Primal Pictures (http://www.primalpictures.com/), provides a very detailed interactive model of the human anatomy, and features 3-D animations that illustrate function, biomechanics, and surgical procedures. The software allows you to rotate structures, manipulate the images, and view different layers to provide a cross-sectional view of different parts of the anatomy. Clinical videos and textual descriptions by leading specialists supplement the animations and models. Interactive learning modules covering basic human anatomy focus on one or more areas of the body, from a generalist’s or specialist’s perspective. Quizzes are also included to test knowledge.
What is the coverage?
Modules cover the following topics:
3D Head & Neck with Basic Neuroanatomy
Interactive Head & Neck
Interactive Spine including a Clinical & Chiropractic Editions
Interactive Shoulder including a Sports Injuries Edition
Interactive Thorax & Abdomen
Primary Hip Arthroplasty
Interactive Pelvis & Perineum
Interactive Knee including a Surgery Edition
Primary Knee Arthroplasty
Interactive Knee including a Sports Injuries Edition
Interactive Foot & Ankle including a Sports Injuries Edition
Podiatric Medicine & Surgery
Interactive Hand including a Therapy Edition
Interactive Functional Anatomy
Complete Human Anatomy Study Guide
Anatomy for Acupuncture
How do I access it?
Primal Pictures is available within Ovid Online. Various routes are possible:
It is also available to St. George’s Hospital staff via Ovid Online with your NHS Athens password
Can I re-use any of the Primal Pictures content?
For educational use only by University staff and students, images, videos, text etc can be copied and used in documents, presentations, but please acknowledge the source.
In addition, content can also be used in Moodle or the University Intranet/Portal. Please note that if we cancel our subscription to Primal Pictures then any online content must be removed.
“Internet for Image Searching” is a new, free online tutorial to help staff and students in education to find digital images for their learning and teaching:
The emphasis of the tutorial is on finding copyright cleared images which are available free; facilitating quick, hassle-free access to a vast range of online photographs and other visual resources.
This tutorial has been created by TASI – the JISC Advisory Service for digital media, and Intute as part of the Virtual Training Suite.
Information provided by Emma Place, Intute Training and Outreach Manager, Institute for Learning and Research Technology (ILRT), University of Bristol.