Mental Health Awareness Week – what nature means to library staff

From 10th to 16th May 2021 is Mental Health Awareness Week and this year the Mental Health Foundation has chosen nature as the theme.

Check out the hashtag #connectwithnature on social media. We will be sharing posts around Mental Health Awareness Week all week on Twitter, Facebook and Instagram.

In this blogpost, your library team highlights in sentences and images what nature means to them and their mental wellbeing.

Over the last year, many of us have become more aware of our relationship with nature, be that our balcony, garden, local park, forest, the beach or mountains. More than an appreciation of the small things in life, the last year has shown that we are inextricably part of nature and that nature plays a central role in our emotional and physical wellbeing. It has also become clear that access to and time in nature is often still for the privileged few, despite the fact that we all benefit enormously. Nature is not a luxury but must be available to all of us. Perhaps our appreciation for the natural world over the last year in combination with our increasing and continued damage to our planet has given us food for thought. In this sense, access to nature for mental wellbeing is a social justice and environmental issue.

With this blogpost, we want to raise awareness of the importance of mental wellbeing and the role that nature can play in that. We want to normalise conversations around how we are doing and that at times, we might not be doing so well emotionally or mentally.

What does nature mean to us and our mental wellbeing?

Sue – Associate Director of Information Services (Library & Learning Services)

Escape from the rat race
Space to think
Inspiring awe
A step away from the mundane
Tiny miracles
Expanding our horizons

Rocks on the beach in Hastings
at the beach in Hastings

Karen – NHS and Liaison Manager

Accessing local green spaces has helped me and my children digitally detox during intensive times of home-learning and home-working this past year

Emily (Information Assistant)

During the first lock down, when you were only allowed an hour outside a day, I tried to ensure I took my kids out for some sort of walk every day to get a bit of exercise and fresh air.  Being outside helped us to stay feeling connected to the world and I think feel somehow reassured that the sun still came out, the rain still fell, the trees still stood, and the flowers grew. It was a sense of some normality in the chaos that nature still carried on. It made us appreciate every little bit of green space nearby.  We always returned from outside feeling more hopeful.

Anna – Liaison Librarian (FHSCE)

Conversations about nature tend to cheer people up, and are a vehicle for a non-stressful chat with colleagues.

Stephen – Liaison Support Librarian (NHS)

Regarding the question of nature, I suppose the first impulse is to think of the outdoors in some of its grander forms (beaches, mountains, forests, etc.) before then considering those havens of nature which may be nearby to us (parks, commons, woods) which, given that ‘more than one in five households in London has no access to a private or shared garden‘, offer invaluable resources in support of health and wellbeing. 

Even more locally than these, however, is the nature that can (should?) be brought into the home (and work) environment. For the good that plants can do in cleaning indoor air; for the connection that tending plants offers to a larger living world; and for the aesthetic contribution that plants can make to any indoor space, my shout out goes to the humble (or showy) houseplant.

Jennifer – Research Publications Librarian

White blossom; blue sky

Delicate petals fall and

Again, I will sigh.

Photo of tree blossoms
Blossom

Louise – Helpdesk supervisor

I like to be out in nature – in the outside, wandering in the woods – always nicer in the sunshine of course but I love lifting my face to the wind in early Autumn.

The main thing I think is how nature affects your senses;

Smell –  fresh rain – especially in the summer, flowers, freshly cut grass, even those ‘farmyard’ smells just make you think of nature in general.

Sight – new blossom on trees, the changing colours of leaves in the Autumn, freshly laid snow in Winter. Seeing newborns – ducklings/Goslings growing, tadpoles changing into frogs.

Touch – feeling grasses, petals even different textured tree trunks, pebbles, stones, sand beneath your bare feet.

Hearing – the most obvious is the bird call of course. Although noting beats the sea crashing on the shore if you are by the coast, or even the gentler shushing of waves.

Ros – User Experience & Operations Manager

Two children with their backs turned away from the camera, running along a forest path with bluebells on either side.

Dan – Information Assistant

It’s always good to get out of the house whether its just to the park over the road or a car trip to the beach. Its about being out in the fresh air and looking at the trees and green or being by the Sea. I always feel better after I’ve been outside even if its just for an hour or two. It certainly improves my day. The dog loves it too!

Juulia – Archivist

Here is a composite of photos I’ve taken across the year of the trees in a nearby woods. Having access to a green space has definitely been a lifeline, and doing more or less the same walk every day has made me focus on the seasonal changes, and on all the small details you might otherwise miss. And it has made me really appreciate how you can find beauty maybe in some unexpected places – my local cemetery is absolutely brimming with nature & life!

Composite of photos of trees across the seasons

James – Liaison Support Librarian (FHSCE)

When I’m outside in nature my mind becomes quiet and I have the opportunity to become aware of something bigger than myself. When I’m not so focused on me and my story, I can really begin to relax and start to let go of built-up tensions.

Georgie – Information Assistant

I’ve become a member of Kew Gardens in the last year and it’s been wonderful to be able to spend time in such a beautiful place. I had a lovely, quiet, peaceful walk there on Sunday morning.

Picture of bluebells and trees in the sunshine at Kew Gardens.
At Kew Gardens

Alex – Project Archivist

I think to me, nature reminds me that I am part of something bigger, something beautiful. It makes me feel extremely lucky and full of joy but as I have gotten older that joy tends to be tinged with a bit of sadness and frustration at how often we mistreat it and take it for granted. Over the last year I have loved seeing people, myself included, reconnect with nature and take pleasure in simply being outside, but I have also seen how much nature has become a privilege that not everyone has equal access to and that it is very easy to be cut off from in modern cities. Being surrounded by nature, I would say, is extremely good for my mental wellbeing, but it is not always an entirely positive experience and sometimes I do leave it feeling slightly weighed down by my responsibility to do more to protect what I have seen.

Anne – Liaison Support Librarian (IMBE)

A chance to connect with something beyond myself
Miracles of colours, textures, sounds
The abundance of life away from a screen
Sharing the joy of nature with others
A spiritual practice and gratitude
Watching seedlings grow

Nothing new under the sun: 1870s style contact tracing and smallpox vaccinations

Opening Up the Body’ is a Wellcome-funded project to conserve the Post Mortem Examinations and Case Books of St George’s Hospital, 1841-1946. Our Archive team have been cataloguing and digitising records dating from 1841-1921.This blogpost was written by Archivist Juulia Ahvensalmi.

 ‘It is difficult to imagine a more favourable opportunity than the one recently afforded us here, of investigating the laws of an epidemic disease such as the one we have just experienced’

Thomas Jones, ‘On the Recent Outbreak of Smallpox at St George’s Hospital’ (1870)

‘Contact tracing’ has in the past year become a phrase that is surely now familiar to us all. As a concept, however, it’s nothing new. In this blogpost, we’ll take a look at how St George’s reacted to a smallpox epidemic at the hospital.

In November 1870, smallpox cases started spreading within St George’s hospital. The infected patients had all been admitted for other causes, and had all been in the hospital for a long time – somewhere between two weeks and four months. It seemed clear the disease was being somehow transmitted among the patients, but as the cases occurred in different wards and floors with no direct contact between the patients, the route of transmission was a mystery.

Photo of St George's Hospital at Hyde Park Corner
Image 1. St George’s Hospital at Hyde Park Corner, London. Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.

Generally, patients with infectious diseases were sent to specialised hospitals to prevent the spread in more general hospitals. Two of these so-called fever hospitals were the Fountain Hospital and the Grove Hospital, which stood side by side on the site now occupied by St George’s in Tooting. The Fountain Hospital was established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board (MAB) in 1893 in response to a scarlet fever epidemic, and later became a mental hospital for children. The Grove Fever Hospital opened in 1899; in 1954 it became the Tooting branch of St George’s. The last remaining buildings are now being demolished.

Photo of architectural drawing showing Fountain Grove Fever Hospital, Tooting Graveney
Image 2. Architectural drawing showing ‘The Fountain Grove Fever Hospital, Tooting Graveney’. Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.
Left-hand side: aerial photo of St George's site with Fountain and Grove Hospitals in 1930s
Right-hand side: view of final buildings being demolished March 2021.
Image 3. An aerial view of St George’s site with Fountain and Grove Hospitals in the 1930s, and a view of the final buildings being demolished on a grey day in March 2021. Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.

Tracing the epidemic

Sarah M., 23, was admitted into St George’s hospital on 28 Sep 1870 for ‘syphilitic laryngitis’. For several weeks, she was given potassium iodide. The first smallpox eruptions appeared nearly two months after her initial admission, and were first thought to be a side effect of her medication. When her condition became apparent, she was quarantined in a separate room in the basement of the hospital, her bed and bedlinen were disinfected, and she was moved back to the workhouse she had come from only a few days later (which sounds like not very effective quarantine practice, but we’ll come back to that later).

Thomas Jones, MD, wrote an article on the outbreak in St George’s Hospital and Medical School Annual Reports, which consisted not only of reports of specifically relating to St George’s (despite the name), but also of articles by the staff of St George’s and external contributors. These were printed and widely distributed, and have been digitised by HathiTrust from copies held at Harvard University and University of Michigan: we are very grateful for this, especially now when our access to our own physical archives remains sporadic! Jones had only gained his MD earlier that year from St George’s, and was working at the hospital  as resident medical officer and anaesthetist.

Photo of text of St George's Hospital reports.
Image 4. Thomas Jones, ‘On the Recent Outbreak of Smallpox at St George’s Hospital’ (1870). St George’s Hospital reports, vol. 5 (1870). Full text available via HathiTrust and SGHMS/6/1/5, Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.

The article details the cases of the infected patients, with remarks on whether the patient in question had been vaccinated:

‘CASE XV. Mary H., æt. 12, admitted December 12, Drummond Ward. Suffering from knocked-knees. Smallpox eruption, very modified, appeared on January 9th. Discharged convalescent, January 31st. Vaccinated in infancy; vaccine cicatrices of excelled quality.’

‘Case XIX. Florence B., æt.19, admitted December 14th, Crayle Ward. Eczema. Smallpox eruption, which was distinct, appeared on January 14th. Was re-vaccinated on the same day. The attack was rather severe. There was no trace of the re-vaccination on the seventh day. Was vaccinated in infancy; one vaccine mark of bad quality. Has made a good recovery.’

There were altogether 27 cases, of which 20 were cases of transmission within the hospital, whose symptoms appeared between 25 Nov and 15 Jan. In addition, there were three patients who were admitted with smallpox between 12 Jan and 8 Feb, and four who showed symptoms only after having been discharged from the hospital initially.

Post mortems

Of these 27, six died. They were all said to have been suffering from various underlying conditions, including softening of the spinal cord, heart disease, pyelitis and congested lungs; one was recovering from an operation and one, a 23-year old probationer nurse at St George’s called Christiana S. in the article, was said to be ‘of a delicate constitution’ and in ‘a weak state of health’. Three of these six had been vaccinated.

The death of Christiana S., or Christina Stewart, was recorded in the St George’s post mortem books, although there are no case notes as no post mortem was performed – not uncommon when it came to hospital staff. Her cause of death is recorded as ‘Variola’, another name for smallpox.

Photo of post mortem case notes of James Jennings.
Image 5. Post mortem case notes of James Jennings, 37, Pork butcher, PM/1871/12. Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.

One of the unfortunate people who died was James Jennings. His occupation in his post mortem notes was recorded as ‘pork butcher’, and he had been suffering from a feeling of tightness around his abdomen and increasing weakness in his legs for some time; he was also partially paralysed on his hands and legs:

‘He walked to the train on day of admission but says that while in the carriage he felt a sudden sensation of coldness all over, & on reaching London found that he had entirely lost power in the legs’

His treatment included potassium iodide and belladonna. The rash appearing on his skin was initially attributed to the belladonna he had been receiving, rather than smallpox. He died 8 Jan 1871, a couple of days after the appearance of the pustules signifying a smallpox infection, ‘in spite of wine, which was freely administered’. The post mortem found no evidence that he had been vaccinated against smallpox.

The other deaths recorded include that of Ellen Collier, a milliner (whose body was not examined) and David Edwards, a groom, who became delirious and died after being moved to the temporary smallpox ward which had been set up on the top floor of the hospital.

The two other deaths occurred outside the hospital, and are not recorded in the post mortems. Michael S., 48, had been discharged from the hospital 28 Dec; he had spent the following night at Vauxhall-bridge-road, before returning home to Fellday, Dorking. He died 12 Jan 1871, and was examined by a local doctor in Dorking. John T. was only three years old, and had had lithotomy performed on him. Whilst at the hospital, he developed a sore throat, which was assumed to be due to ‘hospital air’ and was sent home, where he died less than a week after the appearance of the smallpox pustules. He had not been vaccinated.

Prevention and tracing the origins of the epidemic

The measures taken at the hospital to mitigate the spread of the disease included isolation of the infected patients: after the first three cases, a convalescent ward on the top floor was set up as a smallpox unit. The ward had dedicated nurses, and no visitors were allowed: the medical officer in charge visited this ward after all his other rounds. Particular attention was also paid to disinfecting the hospital:

‘For the atmosphere of the whole Hospital has been so thoroughly impregnated with carbolic acid, from sheets steeped in it and hung before the door of each ward, and from the floors being washed with a weak solution of the acid, that it has positively been painful to some with very sensitive organs of smell.’

The initial assumption was that the disease had been brought in by visitors, as it was known that smallpox was circulating in the neighbourhood, having, according to the Medical Officer of Health report, been introduced by a governess returning from Paris. Visitors were therefore banned from the wards, unless there were special reasons, i.e. the patient they were visiting was very ill.

Jones set up to detect the origin of the disease. Assuming the incubation period to be 13×24 hours (or 14 days), from the infection to the appearance of an eruption, he managed to trace patient zero, or Case I, Sarah M., who had spent 11 weeks at the hospital.

On 10 Nov, however, she had been allowed to leave the hospital for a few hours to visit a friend, who was later ascertained to have smallpox. Sarah had, however, since been moved back to the workhouse (there is no note in the article of whether the workhouse also suffered from an outbreak, but it is hard to imagine it did not), and Cases II and III did not appear until three weeks later, on a different floor – so how was it possible that the disease continued to spread at the hospital? Moreover, the cases continued to spread even after the visitor ban and the ‘rigidly observed’ quarantine measures.

Did it spread through the air? This theory was dismissed as unlikely, since the cases were so spread over different floors and wards. All other theories were similarly dismissed, and after careful investigation, the only common factor between the cases appeared to be the days when bed-linen was changed.

The linen was changed on Mondays and Thursdays: the dirty linen was sent out to be washed on Thursdays and returned, clean, the following Thursday. One sheet was used on that day, and another clean sheet on the following Monday. This theory seemed to account for the majority of the cases, with a few exceptions, one of which included the hospital carpenter, who may instead have caught the disease through contact with one of the patients.

This led to Jones concluding that the disease was infectious even before any eruptions appeared, and thus any cases of fever during an epidemic should be closely monitored to enable early isolation and disinfection.

Linen was supposed to be washed in boiling water, but, whether or not that actually happened (and washing the linen for the hospital was not an easy or light task!) this, it was concluded, was ‘not sufficient to destroy the fever-poison’. Carbolic acid, however, appears to have worked, as the sheets of the patients known to be infected were steeped in carbolic acid before being sent to the laundry.

Picture of nurses in the laundry of a hospital from 191?
Image 7. Nurses in the laundry of a hospital. Photograph, 191-.. Credit: Wellcome Collection. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)

Vaccination

The main conclusion, however, was to do with vaccination, and in particular re-vaccination:

‘This outbreak … supplies us with farther evidence, if any were required, of the protective power of re-vaccination against smallpox’

Indeed, as the disease spread, it was decided that all the nurses and patients at the hospital should immediately be vaccinated. The vaccination programme was commenced on 13 January 1871, and by March, the measures taken appeared to have stopped the spread of the epidemic.

A follow-up article by obstetric assistant Richard Wilson examines how the vaccination programme was conducted. Three methods were used:

  • Puncturing: ‘by grasping the arm (usually the left) with the left hand, drawing the skin tense, and then making from four to five punctures down to the cutis-vera with an arrow-headed lancet’;
  • Abrasion or scratching, using an ‘ordinary bleeding-lancet’: ‘two or three small parallel scratches were made …. the lymph, if liquid, was then rubbed well in with the point of the lancet; if points were used, these were first moistened by the breath, and rubbed into the different scratches’; and
  • Vesication, using ‘blistering fluid’ the night before the vaccination to make small blisters: ‘on the following day they were priced to allow the serum to exude, and then the lymph was applied to the raw surface’.

The scratching method appeared to be most effective, although it was prone to produce severe inflammation in the elderly or those with other health conditions.

Photo of book page with text and a drawing of the effect of inoculation against smallpox from 1789.
Image 8. Edward Jenner, ‘Causes and Effects of Variolae Vaccinae’ (1798), showing the effect of inoculation against smallpox. RB/285, Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.

The quality of the ‘vaccine marks’ or ‘cicatrices’ appears of particular interest, with ‘good marks’ equating, it was speculated, to stronger protection and increasing the likelihood of a mild form of the disease. ‘Bad’ marks were smooth and shiny, or hardly visible at all: the stronger and more visible the mark, it was thought, the stronger the protection. The vast majority of the staff and patients had already been vaccinated at some point in their lives, most of them in infancy.

Photos of two pages of books with text from St George's Archives.
Image 9. Montagu, Mary Wortley. ‘The Works of the Right Honourable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’ (1805 [1785]), with a description of a ‘smallpox party’ in Istanbul. RB/317, Archives and Special Collections, St George’s, University of London.

Smallpox epidemics were common throughout the 19th century, despite Edward Jenner, a St George’s alumnus, having developed smallpox vaccination in 1796. He was not the first one to attempt to treat the disease, one of the deadliest in history. Mary Montagu introduced the idea of inoculation from Turkey to Britain in the early 1700s. Smallpox was not eradicated until 1973, and to date remains the only human disease to have been eradicated by vaccination.


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New Read and Publish deals for 2021

Since last year’s announcements, SGUL Library has expanded our number of “Read and Publish” deals, giving SGUL researchers even more opportunities to publish open access – this year we have new arrangements with publishers such as Oxford University Press, BMJ Publishing and Cambridge University Press, in addition to others such as Springer and Wiley.

Under these Read and Publish deals, open access fees for publishing original research in many journals from participating publishers are waived.

The deals are called read and publish because the institution has paid for SGUL staff and students to have access to read articles in the subscription journals covered, PLUS, where the SGUL researcher is the corresponding author, research articles can be published under a Creative Commons licence at no extra cost. This is visualised below:

Image shows a large green circle containing a smaller blue circle, containing an even smaller yellow circle. The largest circle is labelled 'university subscription', the middle circle is labelled 'Read articles' and the smallest 'Publish open access'.

To be eligible to publish open access, you’ll need to be the corresponding author on the paper, and either a member of St George’s, University of London staff, or a student at St George’s, University of London. You’ll be expected to use your SGUL affiliation on any articles where the fee is waived under this scheme. Guidance on acknowledging affiliation is contained in SGUL’s Research Publications Policy.

Corresponding authors who are members of St George’s University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust staff with honorary status at SGUL won’t normally qualify for these deals, although if the paper acknowledges a UK funder and a co-author with a relevant grant is based at SGUL, the paper may still qualify – please contact us for further advice.

As well as increasing the opportunities for SGUL researchers to make their research openly available, these deals will also help researchers to comply with funder mandates to publish open access (a CC-BY licence will usually be the one to select for funded research papers).

Which publishers are included in these new deals?

  • BMJ Publishing, including titles such as Archives of Disease in Childhood, Gut, Heart and Sexually Transmitted Infections (your research must be acknowledging one or more specific UK funders to qualify). Note: This deal does not include open access waivers for publishing in the BMJ, or wholly open access titles.
  • Cambridge University Press, including titles such as British Journal of Psychiatry, Cardiology in the Young, Epidemiology & Infection and Twin Research and Human Genetics.
  • Oxford University Press, including titles such as Brain, Clinical Infectious Diseases, European Heart Journal, Human Molecular Genetics, Journal of Infectious Diseases and Virus Evolution.
  • The American Physiological Society, including titles such as American Journal of Physiology – Cell Physiology and American Journal of Physiology – Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. Researchers will also be eligible for a one year APS membership.

See our webpages for further information on the publishers and journals included in these deals, and information on how to apply.

Open Research Platforms

As well as these opportunities to publish open access, a growing number of funders are providing open research platforms for researchers to publish the results of their research rapidly. These include:

Are you funded by the Wellcome Trust?

If you are funded by the Wellcome Trust, remember that their open access policy has changed for journal articles submitted from 1st January 2021. All original, peer reviewed research articles funded by the Wellcome Trust and submitted from this date must be made freely available via PubMed Central (PMC) and Europe PMC by the final publication date, and must be published under a CC BY license (unless Wellcome has agreed to the use of a CC BY-ND license).

The following statement must be included on original, peer reviewed research articles funded by Wellcome and submitted from 1st January 2021:

“This research was funded in whole, or in part, by the Wellcome Trust [Grant number]. For the purpose of Open Access, the author has applied a CC BY public copyright licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising from this submission.”

This rights retention strategy, developed by cOAlition S, will allow Wellcome funded authors to publish in their choice of journal, while also complying with the Wellcome Trust’s new open access policy.

COAlition S have also produced this graphic to explain the rights retention strategy.

For more information on Wellcome’s open access policy, have a look at our Library web page setting out the key points you need to know.

Questions?

Contact us at openaccess@sgul.ac.uk

Or see our Open Access FAQs webpage

Jenni Hughes, Research Publications Assistant

Jennifer Smith, Research Publications Librarian

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Big Read 2021: ‘Airhead’ reviews by the St George’s community

Decorative logo for the Big Read project at St George's

This year, Emily Maitlis’s book Airhead : the imperfect art of making news was chosen as St George’s University’s Big Read book. The Big Read is a shared reading project to foster a sense of belonging among staff and students. It is not too late to claim your free e-book copy. Visit our website to find out more.

Since the beginning of the academic year we have had a number of engaging events around the Big Read. We have met for book clubs (there’s another one on the 28th April). People from across the institution organised discussions around some of the themes covered by the book such as the environment, grief, meditation and movement. We also had the pleasure of welcoming Emily Maitlis to St George’s and hearing from her directly as she was interviewed by two St George’s students. You can find the recording of that session here.

Airhead is a collection of Emily Maitlis’s accounts of meeting world-famous people, reporting on significant world events and investigating important topics of the day. As such, the book lends itself perfectly to reviews as each of us will have chapters that resonate more than others.

Book cover for Airhead by Emily Maitlis

Below you can read a selection of chapter reviews from members across the St George’s community.

Dan Jeffcote (Information Assistant) – David Attenborough: One hour in a hot-air balloon

The interview took place just after the BBC released “Planet Earth II”.  The programme features incredible camera-work and increasingly there is a sense of urgency about the effects of climate change on the planet in his work.

In the interview he discusses issues such as the ozone layer, plastic, building in wildlife habitats and population growth. He is clearly passionate about using scientific evidence to explain climate change. He is well known for his gift for narration and as an adventurer but its his calmness, thoughtfulness and wisdom that come across in this chapter.

His message appears to be we have at this moment in time a choice to either “destroy” or “cherish” our heritage.  Emily Maitlis describes her one hour with him as an interview that calms her soul.

Alina Apostu (Student Experience Officer) – A few words on Jon Stewart and the creature of the news

I suppose one question is ‘What is it like? What is it like to meet all those people in person?’

She, Emily Maitlis, does a good job at giving you a sense of how that might be … but it’s a different feeling that she makes real for the reader …

While all the names in Airhead are big names, my first chapter to read was the one about Jon Steward. I like Jon Stewart. A lot. I like his work, his humour, his voice (both metaphorically and literally). So I echoed Maitlis’ hopes that ‘I do not want to find out he’s a complete muppet in real life. That his thoughts are all tightly scripted, his jokes pre-prepped. I am desperate, in other words, not to be disappointed.’ (p.60).

In the chapter, Maitlis moves so swiftly from mention of his film, Rosewater, and the story behind it of the incarcerated Iranian journalist Maziar Bahari, to the different implications of writing news and writing satire, to his political convictions, to the relationship to his father, to his retirement from the Daily Show, to his view of Islamism, to the effects news have on people’s actual lives, to how he thinks (or doesn’t) about the audience. Eight topics in what feels like a glimpse of a meeting.

As I read, the feeling that became real was of that rush, that rush of the news, of the need to ‘get it’, of the clock-ticking… the book doesn’t lie, it is about the imperfect art of making news, and it felt that whom I met was not so much Jon Stewart but something else … an entity, a creature of the news that takes hold of everything, that brings interviewer and interviewee together in a quick exchange, moving oh so swiftly between philosophical questions, practical implications in real life and personal, intimate histories. Not sure how I feel about that creature …

Sue David (Associate Director of Information Services (Library & Learning Services)) – Rachel Dolezal: the black human activist who turned out to be white

I have enjoyed Emily Maitlis’s book Airhead, with its broad range of issues and personalities and its insight into the frantic life of a journalist – her emotional rollercoaster and personal struggles and juggles.

I found this chapter particularly thought provoking in the context of my own journey towards an understanding of issues associated with racism which have recently been brought to the fore, but which have been part of the British narrative for centuries.

Rachel is a complicated character with a host of interwoven complexities following her abusive upbringing and the negligence and despair she suffered as a child.  That she finds solace in a role as a substitute mother to four adopted black siblings in whose culture she become immersed is a fascinating insight into someone who is looking for a sense of belonging and a need to escape from her own reality.

Emily Maitlis treats Rachel with empathy and compassion.  She does not try to sensationalise her story and has split loyalties, understanding what others will be expecting from the interview – and they are disappointed.  The vitriolic responses to Rachel and the interview are deeply upsetting and have a personal impact on Maitlis who feels an inner need to protect the person behind the story.

This is an example of a hugely complex story which cannot be tackled from a single perspective.  Here the issues “had overtaken the person at the centre”, but the focus of the interview was Rachel and Emily Maitlis treats her subject with sensitivity despite the expectations of her audience.

James Calvert (Liaison Support Librarian (Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education))

Airhead: The Imperfect Art of Making News examines the nature of broadcast news journalism, capturing a vivid snapshot of what happens in front of the camera as well as behind the scenes. As an anecdotal tale of her journalistic adventures, and seemingly fuelled on a diet of chocolate, alcohol and very little sleep, Emily Maitlis takes us swiftly from one famous encounter to the next, her book presented as a collection of compelling vignettes. The short, episodical chapters that make up this easy-reading, but not always comfortable-reading book offers an insider’s perspective on the news-making process. For myself, this never felt more real than with the chapter, ‘Meeting a Prince’, an account of the build-up of the weeks and days to that now infamous Newsnight interview, an important event that may still have the power to help Epstein’s victims later down the line.

Anne Binsfeld (Liaison Support Librarian (IMBE)) – Russell Brand: How Addiction Starts with a Penguin Bar

While I don’t necessarily like Russell Brand, his way of branding himself or even most of his opinions, I really enjoyed the chapter on Maitlis’s interview with Brand around addiction and his book Recovery. Emily Maitlis’s honesty is disarming and I am intrigued by her claim that his book is ‘a sort of AA programme without the pomposity’ considering Russell Brand comes across as pompous and over the top quite often. In this interview however, or rather in Emily’s account of this interview, he comes across as insightful and honest – perhaps because I can see the importance of acknowledging addiction as incredibly common, be it to online shopping sprees (in Maitlis’s case) or drinks, drugs and Penguin bars (in Brand’s case). I would imagine after a year of Covid-19 and three lockdowns down the line, most of us have developed unhealthy coping mechanisms to, as Brand says, supplement ‘our experience of being’. Addiction is a distraction from worries and fears that just feel too large for us to face head on. Despite Brand’s charm, Maitlis doesn’t let him off the hook easily and I have also enjoyed reading about that. Although she might not get any ‘tears of repentance’, she does know how to ask those questions that touch on something true and important in Brand’s experience. In return, Brand comes across as an engaged and engaging interviewee. The final scene highlights poignantly that the art of making news is a game of give and take, like a dance in which interviewer and interviewee are in communication with each other. Great interviews are not one-directional and as Emily Maitlis is happy to admit, put the interviewer on the spot time and time again.

Women in Leadership at St George’s

This blogpost was written by Sue David, Associate Director of Information Services (Library & Learning Services) at St George’s, for International Women’s Day 2021.

Sue David, Associate Director of Information Services (Library & Learning Services) at St George’s

St George’s is lucky to have many inspirational women leaders who act as role models to the whole institution.  Our Principal Jenny Higham, gives us an example of a woman who has made a mark in her field; a practicing clinician, leading a complex institution, with an amazing CV.  She inspires confidence and trust, but remains approachable and compassionate.  Alongside her in the Senior Leadership Team, Jane Saffell heads up Education with tireless energy, creativity and vision.  Other women leaders at St George’s are many and bring their own skills and personalities to their roles.

In the field of librarianship I can look to colleagues who have truly inspired me and have had an impact on how I fulfil my role on a day to day basis.  Liz Jolly, currently heading up the British Library is a loud advocate for services which genuinely meet users’ needs.  Stella Butler (Leeds) and Chris Banks (Imperial) are strong voices for change in accessibility and access to resources.  Within the University of London colleagues at some of the biggest institutions (King’s, City, LSE) work tirelessly to support their staff and deliver the best services they can within the budgets available to them.

What I hope I have gleaned from my encounters with these colleagues is that there is a huge range of skills and attributes that make a strong leader.  There are plenty of important texts and articles, development programmes (the Aurora leadership programme was a particular highlight for me) and training opportunities (I would point to “Manager as Coach” which I attended this year), but I believe it is my networking with inspirational colleagues both within St George’s and in the wider community that has shaped my approach.

From my experience I have come to realise that a cornerstone for me is authenticity.  I try to remain true to my values and to also encompass the St George’s CORE values (Commitment, Openness, Respect, Engagement) in how I lead my team.  People are at the heart of everything I do and my greatest inspiration is my team.  I value their enormous commitment, creativity and hard work. They inspire me to do the best job I can, represent them and our services fairly across the institution and raise the profile of our services wherever possible. 

The key skills I have tried to develop to help me do this are emotional intelligence, empathy and an ability to listen.  Enthusiasm and energy are also important to me and I hope to lead from the front, showing that I am willing to be on the front line when I am needed and not shy away from tasks which are difficult or outside my comfort zone.  My door is always open and I hope that I welcome suggestions, innovation and change from wherever in the institution it may come.

Covid has really emphasised the need to be flexible – to be willing to take on new challenges and contribute to the whole institution’s response.  This has involved engaging with colleagues I wouldn’t normally have the opportunity to work with, learning from them and collaborating in our response, keeping our students’ and staffs’ best interests at heart.

Taking a leadership role can be daunting.  Overcoming the feelings of inadequacy and developing confidence in your ability to do the best job you can in your own way takes time.  Seeking support from both inside and outside the organisation, getting involved in activities which are challenging (chairing committees, involvement in external networks) and trusting your instincts go a long way to help.  I think it is really important not to be afraid to make mistakes and to own those mistakes and learn from them.  We are none of us perfect and can only do our best. 

For me it is important that what I do enables others.  I aim to help my team grow and develop their own skills and qualities, to help our students get the service they need and to help St George’s continue to be a caring, compassionate “family” that strives to do the best it can for everyone.

Kortext ebooks NHS collection

Health Education England (HEE) has invested in a collection of ebooks for NHS staff, now available through Kortext.

The collection of ebooks covers subject areas including key clinical topics, nursing and healthcare management, alongside titles on critical appraisal, mentoring and revision resources for medical exams.

To access the books, go directly to the Kortext website: https://app.kortext.com, select St George’s University Hospitals NHS Trust from the list of institutions and enter your OpenAthens details. You will also find a link to Kortext in ‘My Resources‘ when you log into your OpenAthens account.

On the landing page of the site, click on Collections to view the full list of ebooks. Selecting an available title will add it to Books, which is your personal bookshelf. Books that you open will remain on your bookshelf for the duration of their loan period.

Kortext offers accessiblity options which allow you to change the formatting of a book, including options for the background colour, the font and the size of the text. When reading a book, make use of the options to take notes, highlight content, bookmark pages or print – all notes, highlights and bookmarks are saved in your account.

If you wish to read offline, create a personal Kortext account and download the app; Kortext apps are available for Mac, Windows, iOS and Android.

Example titles:

Bailey & Love’s Essential Clinical Anatomy

Care of the Cancer Patient

Children and Young People’s Nursing Skills at a Glance

Essentials of Management for Healthcare Professionals

Essential knowledge and skills for healthcare assistants

Medical Statistics at a Glance

Patient-Centred Ethics and Communication at the End of Life

Research Methodologies for Beginners

Supervision in Clinical Practice : A Practitioner’s Guide

The doctor’s guide to critical appraisal

The Foundation Programme for Doctors

The textbook of non-medical prescribing

This collection is an addition to those ebooks which are already available from St George’s Library, and which can be accessed through Hunter.

If you need to create an OpenAthens account, or have forgotten your password, visit: https://openathens.nice.org.uk/. Contact liaison@sgul.ac.uk with any questions.

Open Access Week 2020: Open with Purpose

This week, October 19th-25th, is Open Access Week, an annual, international event dedicated to celebrating and promoting Open Research.

This year’s theme is Open with Purpose: Taking Action to Build Structural Equity and Inclusion, acknowledging that current systems are often built on a past of historic injustices and that in building new systems, we need to be mindful of who we are and aren’t including, who we are prioritising and whether we are perpetuating a legacy of injustice.

To find out more, visit www.openaccessweek.org, or follow the official twitter hashtag, #OAWeek. We’ll also be tweeting and retweeting from the library account, @sgullibrary, and, if you’re in the library, look out for our poster on how to find open access material.

You can also find posts we’ve made in previous years under the Open Access Week tag on this blog.

Here at SGUL we support open research via our Research Publications Repository (SORA) and our Research Data Repository. We currently have over 4870 full text papers available via SORA, with an average 4180 downloads a month, and these numbers are rising every day. And, since its launch three years ago, we’ve had 17,163 downloads of public content in our Research Data Repository.

As well as supporting SGUL researchers to make their publications openly available via SORA, the Library is also signing up to Read and Publish deals, several of which are new in 2020. These deals work by giving SGUL patrons access to read journals, and giving SGUL corresponding authors the opportunity to publish original research articles on open access, as visualised below:

(from our blogpost on our Read and Publish deals)

Research outputs that aren’t traditional publications, such as research data, source code, poster presentations and so on, can be uploaded to our Research Data Repository, where they will be preserved and, where appropriate, made available for other researchers to explore and re-use. The Research Data Repository has been updated recently – have a look at our blog post from last week to find out more.

If you’d like to know more about SORA or about our Research Data Repository, please get in touch at sora@sgul.ac.uk (for SORA) or researchdata@sgul.ac.uk (for the Research Data Repository, or for general help managing your data throughout the research lifecycle).

Want to get involved?

Here are some ways to consider making your research practices more open:

  • Upload your author’s accepted manuscripts to a repository such as SORA: this means that, publisher copyright permitting, we will be able to make them available to people who might not otherwise have been able to access them. You can do this via your CRIS profile at http://cris.sgul.ac.uk/ – if you have any questions, you can contact us at sora@sgul.ac.uk
  • Get in touch with researchdata@sgul.ac.uk about making your other research outputs openly accessible via our Research Data Repository, or for ideas on where to find open data and other outputs you can use in your own research.
  • Think about uploading a preprint of your research to a preprint server. Posting papers to preprint platforms has increased greatly since the start of the pandemic – you can find out more about preprints, such as what they are and what to consider before posting, by reading our blogpost from last year on preprints in the medical, biological and health sciences.
  • Follow the conversation via the twitter hashtag #OAWeek – and add your own thoughts and reflections!

Any questions? Get in touch with us:

We look forward to hearing from you.

Michelle Harricharan, Research Data Support Manager

Jenni Hughes, Research Publications Assistant

Jennifer Smith, Research Publications Librarian

Health E-news Friday 9 October

Health E-News is a weekly update on policy and guidelines from organisations including NICE and individual Royal Medical Colleges, and news and views on health related subjects and research from trusted sources such as The King’s Fund, Cochrane, The Health Foundation, the NHS and the Department of Health and Social Care.

Click here to sign up to this bulletin via email.

COVID-19 guidance and policy

Announcement of forthcoming guideline on persistent effects of COVID-19

NICE, and the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) have announced that they will work with the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP) to develop a guideline for the persistent effects of COVID-19, or long covid. The guideline will address, among other things, a formal definition of the disease, and how to identify on-going symptoms, which can include on-going shortness of breath, fatigue, heart, lung, kidney, neurological and musculoskeletal problems. It will also provide a definition of best practice investigation and treatment options to support the management of the condition. Publication is expected before the end of the year.

COVID-19 related news

Cochrane review on anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID-19

A recently published Cochrane review explores the use of prophylactic anticoagulants for those who are hospitalised with COVID-19, to see whether preventive use of anticoagulants reduced mortality or the need for respiratory support, compared with placebo or no anticoagulant treatment. The studies found for inclusion in the review were retrospective studies from hospitals in China, Italy, Spain and the USA, and the variance in reporting of results, along with incomplete reporting, means the review authors have low confidence in the current evidence. 22 ongoing studies on the topic, including 20 RCTs, were identified, and the review will be updated when results of these are published.

Other news

Cochrane brings together recent reviews relevant to nursing, midwifery and allied health

On the Evidently Cochrane blog this week, collections of recent Cochrane reviews have been brought together for several staff groups. The individual collections offer an overview of recent evidence relating to nursing, reviews relevant for allied health professionals, and for midwives. Each collection offers several different topics, provides a summary of the findings, and links to the full reviews.

Cancer Research UK publication on the early detection and diagnosis of cancer

Cancer Research UK have published the ‘Early Detection and Diagnosis of Cancer Roadmap’, a report which aims to help bring together the UK efforts in early detection and diagnosis of cancer. The document aims to define a shared vision amongst healthcare professionals, healthcare service commissioners, academia, research funders, patients and other stakeholder sectors, and makes recommendations for overcoming the existing challenges to progress in this area.

NHS Employers resources for World Mental Health Day

Ahead of World Mental Health Day on Saturday 10 October, NHS Employers have rounded up a range of resources relevant to mental health and wellbeing amongst the healthcare workforce. The resources include a toolkit developed in partnership with Mind, and a variety of resources relating to mental wellbeing throughout the ongoing pandemic, including some specific advice on mental health for those working from home.

International consensus statement on preventing opioid-related harm

An international multi-disciplinary consensus statement on the prevention of opioid-related harm in surgical patients has been published in Anaesthesia. The authors of the statement include anaesthetists, pain specialists, surgeons, a primary care physician, nurse and pharmacist from Australia, India, Italy, the Netherlands, the UK and the USA, selected on the basis of clinical or academic expertise. The statement offers guidance on the safe peri-operative use of opioids in adult surgical patients, and includes recommended strategies to reduce the potential harms of postoperative use of opioids.

Nuffield Trust report considers mental health nurse education

A report from the Nuffield Trust, commissioned by NHS Employers and the Mental Health Network, looks at ways more people might be attracted to apply to study mental health nursing, and considers the reasons why numbers are currently limited. ‘Laying foundations: Attitudes and access to mental health nurse education’, identifies five broad areas where efforts can be made to encourage and support an increased number of students in mental health nursing education. These include improving understanding of mental health nursing roles and mental health patients, and enabling access to courses across the country, from across the breadth of the population.

NICE guidance

Medtech innovation briefing

MIB229 AnaConDa-S for sedation with volatile anaesthetics in intensive care

NICE guideline

NG170 COVID-19 rapid guideline: cystic fibrosis Updated

NG183 Behaviour change: digital and mobile health interventions

Technology appraisal

TA652 Alpelisib with fulvestrant for treating hormone-receptor positive, HER2-negative, PIK3CA-positive advanced breast cancer (terminated appraisal)

NIHR alerts 

Working may improve quality of life for carers of people with dementia

A decision aid may help people with newly-diagnosed multiple sclerosis consider their options for treatment

People with anorectal melanoma may not benefit from radical surgery


Statistics

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Health e-news Friday 28 August

Health E-News is a weekly update on policy and guidelines from organisations including NICE and individual Royal Medical Colleges, and news and views on health related subjects and research from trusted sources such as The King’s Fund, Cochrane, The Health Foundation, the NHS and the Department of Health and Social Care.

Click here to sign up to this bulletin via email.

COVID-19 guidance and policy

Joint vision for eye care services during and beyond COVID-19

The College of Optometrists and The Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth) have developed a joint vision for the two professions to continue to work together to support the delivery of safe and sustainable eye care services in England. The vision sets out three key principles and recommendations for the development and governance of high quality eye care service. The three principles are: balancing visual loss due to delays against the risk of acquiring COVID-19; decisions about the most effective patient care being made by the appropriate clinician, and; all pathways to be underpinned by the highest standards of joint optometry and ophthalmology clinical governance.

COVID-19 related news

Study offers more detailed picture of COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes in children

Findings, published in the BMJ, of an observational study of 651 children and young people (aged less than 19 years) with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals across England, Wales and Scotland between 17 January and 3 July 2020, offer further details of the symptoms, risks and outcomes of the virus in children. The nationwide study highlights that a very small number of children (six) died, and that those children most at risk of requiring intensive care are babies under one month old, and children aged 10 to 14 years. In common with adults, the study found that obesity, and black ethnicity were factors that increased the risk of requiring intensive care.

New measures to support development and rollout of COVID-19 vaccines announced

The government has outlined a number of measures that will allow the safe future mass rollout of a COVID-19 vaccine. These include an expansion of the trained workforce that can administer vaccines, in order to increase access; and giving the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) powers to consider approving use of a vaccine ahead of a full product licence; providing that robust clinical trials demonstrate its safety and effectiveness. Linked with these proposals, a consultation is seeking views on the safe distribution of potential COVID-19 vaccines and treatments.

Other news

RCN launches fresh campaign for nursing pay rise

The Royal College of Nursing (RCN) has launched a new ‘Fair pay for nursing’ campaign, seeking an immediate pay rise of 12.5% for all NHS nursing staff. The RCN highlight that the pay rise is needed to: provide safe and effective patient care for all people of the UK by addressing the staffing crisis within nursing; recognise the skill, accountability and expertise of a safety critical profession; and recognise that the salaries of nursing staff have not kept pace with increases in the cost of living. The campaign page also notes the political nature of health care funding in its call for action to address the years of inadequate support for nurses.

RCPCH on declining vaccination rates in the UK

The Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) considers some of the factors that are contributing to the ongoing trend of declining vaccination rates in the UK. The piece highlights some of the potential barriers that prevent access to vaccines; considers the significant role of misconceptions, misinformation and belief; and in light of the pandemic, also discusses the impact of disruption to routines and the development and distribution of new vaccines.

NHS Confederation calls for inspections to be paused until after winter

The NHS Confederation has written to the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, calling for the routine inspections of hospitals and other health care providers to be put on hold until after winter. Pausing inspections, the organisation says, will enable hospitals and other providers to focus on the backlog of treatment that has built up, as well as address issues like staff exhaustion, while also managing the ongoing threat from coronavirus. A recent report by the NHS Confederation makes the case for learning from the present moment, and asks questions of what governance and regulation of healthcare could look like if bureaucracy were reduced.

NHS Providers report on meeting the needs of everyone

A report from NHS Providers, ‘Getting it right for everyone: Meeting the needs of people with a learning disability and autistic people in NHS services’ looks at the longstanding structural inequities faced by people with a learning disability and autistic people, and the further  impact of the pandemic upon these inequalities. Drawing upon interviews with leaders in trusts providing good and outstanding learning disabilities and autism services, the report sets out in detail the common themes behind high quality care, offering detailed case studies of how they have succeeded.

NICE guidance

Clinical guideline

CG134 Anaphylaxis: assessment and referral after emergency treatment Updated

Diagnostics guidance

DG40 High-sensitivity troponin tests for the early rule out of NSTEMI

Medtech innovation briefing

MIB224 FebriDx for C-reactive protein and myxovirus resistance protein A testing

Quality standard

QS196 Community pharmacies: promoting health and wellbeing

QS197 Faltering growth

NIHR alerts

Screening for lymphoedema after breast cancer surgery could identify women likely to benefit from compression sleeves

The weekly break from dialysis is harmful to patients with kidney failure

Statistics

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Health E-news Friday 14 August

Health E-News is a weekly update on policy and guidelines from organisations including NICE and individual Royal Medical Colleges, and news and views on health related subjects and research from trusted sources such as The King’s Fund, Cochrane, The Health Foundation, the NHS and the Department of Health and Social Care.

Click here to sign up to this bulletin via email.

COVID-19 guidance and policy

NHS publishes guidance for phase three response to COVID-19

The NHS has published a guidance document offering recommended actions across several key areas, including: addressing inequalities in provision and outcomes; mental health planning; and the restoration of community health services. Responding to the publication of the guidance, the NHS Confederation welcomed the emphasis on tackling the health equalities exposed by the pandemic.

COVID-19 related news

Briefing from NHS Providers explores trusts’ experiences of COVID testing regime

A new report from NHS Providers, drawing on the responses from 112 trusts to a survey conducted during June and July, explores the experiences that trusts have had with the national testing strategy so far. The report examines levels of confidence in the government’s approach and strategy, and trust leaders’ confidence in being able to meet testing requirements; considers issues relating to variable turnaround time for test results, and the implications of these; and calls for greater local involvement and control in testing in order to manage routine testing of staff and patients as services resume.

REACT study publishes first findings

The REACT (REal Time Assessment of Community Transmission) study, which has been using antibody finger-prick tests to track past infections and monitor the progress of the pandemic, has published pre-print findings on antibody prevalence based on 100,000 study participants. The findings indicate that 3.4 million people – 6% of the population – had been infected by COVID-19 by 13 July 2020. People living in London were most likely to have been infected, as were those working in care homes and health care, and people from Black, Asian and other minority ethnic groups and people living in larger households. All findings from the study can be found on the group’s page on the Imperial website.

COVID-19 pay protection FAQs

The NHS Staff Council Executive has published FAQs on pay protection relating to workforce issues arising from COVID-19. The document is an addition to existing guidance from the Department of Health and Social Care, and answers questions relating to staff who are redeployed to help service and patient needs, or in cases of redeployment following a risk assessment.

Study reveals extent of symptoms or infection of healthcare staff resulting from intubation

A new study published in Anaesthesia, explores the extent to which healthcare staff involved in procedures such as intubation might be exposed to elevated risk of acquiring COVID-19. The study of 1,718 healthcare workers from 503 hospitals in 17 countries shows that overall, 1 in 10 healthcare workers involved in intubating seriously ill patients with COVID-19 later reported symptoms, or had lab-confirmed COVID-19 themselves. The study authors recommend use of the findings to inform service planning, and suggest future work should aim at identifying interventions to reduce risks to healthcare professionals.

Other news

Research finds breast screening women aged 40-49 reduces cancer mortality

Research published in The Lancet Oncology, from a trial involving 23 breast screening units across Great Britain, suggests that yearly mammography commencing at age 40 or 41 years could lead to reductions in breast cancer mortality. The trial involved over 160 thousand women, recruited between October 1990 and September 1997, and the publication offers analysis of the data at 23 years of follow-up.

BMA report on disability in the medical profession

A new report from the BMA examines the experiences of disabled people studying, training and working in medicine, and offers recommendations for improving the support on offer. The report, based upon responses to a BMA survey, shows that just over half of respondents receive adjustments that they need, and which are a legal duty to provide. Over three quarters of respondents also expressed concerns over being treated unfavourably if disclosing a disability or long-term health condition.

NICE guidance

Interventional procedures guidance

IPG678 Deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy in adults

IPG679 Implanted vagus nerve stimulation for treatment-resistant depression

Medtech innovation briefing

MIB221 Healthy.io test for home testing of urine albumin to creatinine ratio

MIB222 pCONUS2 Bifurcation Aneurysm Implant for complex intracranial aneurysms

MIB223 Spartan RX point-of-care CYP2C19 test to guide treatment in acute coronary syndrome

Quality standard

QS194 Decision making and mental capacity

NICE Guideline

NG160 COVID-19 rapid guideline: dialysis service delivery Updated

NG174 COVID-19 rapid guideline: children and young people who are immunocompromised Updated

Technology appraisal

TA641 Brentuximab vedotin in combination for untreated systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma

TA642 Gilteritinib for treating relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia

TA643 Entrectinib for treating ROS1-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

TA644 Entrectinib for treating NTRK fusion-positive solid tumours

NIHR alerts 

Early warning scores used in hospitals must be based on sound science

High rates of delirium, persistent fatigue and post-traumatic stress disorder were common after severe infection in previous coronavirus outbreaks

Fluoxetine does not improve outcomes after stroke

Statistics

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